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Information about Grapefruit Seed Extract (GSE) AT30

Diphenol hydroxybenzene complex

                               Direct Info CO.,LTD.                           

Discovered in 1972 by Dr. Jacob Harish, a physicist, grapefruit seed extract(GSE) has been used all over the world for the better health of people, plants and animals. Grapefruit extract is used as an antibiotic, antiseptic, disinfectant, and as a preservative in food and cosmetics. Grapefruit extract is also non-toxic, environmentally safe, and quickly bio-degradable. It causes no side effects and is often dramatically less expensive than existing treatments or chemicals for similiar applications, whether human, animal, or agricultural in scope. Your satisfaction is guaranteed, unconditionally.

Grapefruit Seed Extract: What is It?

Grapefruit Seed Extract(GSE) is made by first converting grapefruit seeds and pulp into a very acidic liquid.

This liquid is loaded with polyphenolic compounds, including quercitin, helperidin, campherol glycoside, neohelperidin, naringin, apigenin, rutinoside, poncirin, etc. The polyphenols themselves are unstable but are chemically converted into more stable substances that belong to a diverse class of products called quaternary ammonium compounds.

Some quaternary compounds, benzethonium chloride and benzalkonium chloride, for example, are used industrially as antimicrobials, but are toxic to animal life. The B vitamin choline is also a quaternary compound, but is non-toxic and even essential for maintaining healthy neurological function and fat metabolism.

GSE features the best of both worlds: the quaternary compounds derived from grapefruit exhibit broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, while evidencing none of the toxic side-effects of chemically-derived quaternaries.

The finished product is a viscous, yellow-amber colored liquid that features a taste that is both bitter and acidic. (Practitioners of Chinese and Ayurvedic medicine consider both qualities to be part of the therapeutic process.) Pure vegetable glycerin is added to reduce the bitterness and acidity to a tolerable level and to reduce the possibility that incidental contact could cause irritation to the skin or mucous membranes.

How was GSE Discovered?

Jacob Harish was eating a grapefruit for breakfast one morning in France and savoring its taste.

World War II had just ended and since fresh fruit was a rare treat in Europe at that time, Jacob savored it all the more - until, that is, he bit into a seed! The extremely bitter taste of the seed interrupted his enjoyment of breakfast but also prompted him to wonder, 'What makes it so bitter?'

For many, such a question would have been of mere passing interest, but for Jacob, a budding scientist, it inspired a compelling inquiry, one that would take decades to answer and years more to 'bear fruit'.

Jacob Harich was born in Yugoslavia in 1919 and educated in Germany. WWII interrupted his studies in nuclear physics. After witnessing the horrors of war as a fighter pilot, young Harich was inspired to devote the rest of his life to improving the human condition. To this end, he augmented his studies in physics with a full university course in medicine, specializing in gynecology and immunology. Arriving in the United States in 1957, Dr. Harich furthered his education at Long Island University, N.Y. But it wasn't until 1963, after moving to the heart of grapefruit country in Florida, that he received the necessary support to carry out his research.

Harich approached Dr. Steven Otwell and Dr. Wayne Marshall, both leading researchers on the effects of microbes on food. Although initially skeptical, they were won over by the demonstration of GSE's amazing ability to protect produce, fish, and poultry from the assault of bacteria, fungi, and parasites. The reputation of these two doctors and the renown of the food science laboratory at the University of Florida, Gainesville, their home base, prompted other institutions to consider the claims being made by Dr. Harich.

Finally, by 1990, holistic health practitioners in the United States began to hear about this remarkable product, understand the implications for their patients, and thereby gave Dr. Harich's work the boost it deserved into scientific credibility.

In 1995 Dr. Harich was invited to Europe as a guest of honor of the Pasteur Institute of France, Europe's leading AIDS research center. For several years the Institute has been researching the potential of GSE as a prophylactic against the HIV virus as well as against some of the secondary infections associated with AIDS. He was also honored by farmers in Europe who now use a powdered form of GSE in fish and poultry feed to fight two potentially lethal bacteria, Salmonella and E. Coli.

Dr. Harich died in May of 1996. It is pleasant to think that he did receive in his lifetime the recognition he deserved for a life devoted to a revolutionary approach to controlling dangerous germs.

University of Georgia Evaluates GSE

Testing was conducted by the U. of Georgia, in Athens, GA, to evaluate grapefruit seed extract as a disinfectant in tests against E. Coli, Salmonella sps., and Staph aureus. Roger Wyatt, Ph.D., and Microbiologist for the U. of GA, reported,

"Our studies indicate excellent potential for these products(GSE). ...The toxicological that I have reviewed indicated that this product and the active ingredient poses very low toxicity. As you know this is important because most disinfectants that are currently used in either animal or human environments have moderate to high toxicity and extreme care must be exercised when these products are used. The lack of any significant toxicological properties of (GSE) is also impressive when one views the efficacy data where extemely small concentrations of the product can be used with marked beneficial results."

Dr. Wyatt continued, "In view of the reports that we have discussed, the wide spectrum of activity that (GSE) offers(antiviral, antibacterial; Gram+ and Gram-, antimycotic, and antiprotozoan) will undoubtedly aid in its acceptability."

Dr. Wyatt's findings have also been confirmed by a variety of clinics and labs, as well as universities from around the world, including the University of Arkansas, the U. of Malaya, the U. of Sao Paulo, and the University Ricardo Palma, to name a few.

Germ-Killing Skin Cleanser Touted by University of Sao Paulo

Not since hexachlorophene has anything been such a powerful germ killer and deep cleanser. Fortunately for us, grapefruit seed extract when mixed with soap and cleansing products only kills the germs, not the skin or the environment. Its efficacy is corroborated by Dr. J. A. Rotino of the University of Sao Paulo in Brazil. Dr. Botino was testing GSE against alcohol in emergency field prep situations and reported, "...(GSE) was 100% effective(at 100 ppm) in skin disinfection when used as a pre-surgical prep compared to 72% effective for alcohol."

Dr. Botino also found that GSE was "...100%(effective at 100 ppm) as compared to 98% for commercially available surgical soap" when used as a pre-surgical scrub for l minute.

A growing number of dermatologists, aestheticians and cosmetologists are now using GSE mixed in soaps, skin cleansers or as a direct treatment itself, to cleanse, purify, and balance facial skin and other areas of the body.

As a super facial cleanser aestheticians apply 2-3 drops of GSE to their moistened fingertips and gently massage the wetted facial area in circular motions for about a minute, rinsing thoroughly with cool water. Patients often report a tingling sensation of the skin following the treatment which is indicative of the cleansing action and bacteria-killing properties of the GSE.

First Aid for Drinking Water

GSE is ideal as a safe and simple way to disinfect drinking water when camping, back packing or in any emergency situation where safe drinking water is not obtainable, and boiling(or distilling) is not practical.

Available water should first be filtered. (At the very least, let suspended particles settle.) Retain the clear water and add 10 to 25 drops of grapefruit seed extract(less for questionable tap water, more for stream or pond water) for each one gallon of water. Shake or stir vigorously and let sit for a few minutes. A slightly bitter taste may be noticed. This is just the inherent taste of the GSE.

Safe and easy to carry!

A word on humidifiers: Put 3 or 4 drops GSE per gallon of reservoir water into your humidifier, and voila! The slimy algae will not grow! This will work whenever standing water is present. Safe and non-toxic.

Stops sore throat, Kills Strep!

Such a simple remedy for a problem that is usually candy-coated instead of cured.

Gargling with GSE and water will handle the most resistant Strep germs. The necessary dilution of GSE against Streptococcus faecalis is only 1:80,000, in vitro. In vivo, doctors are recommending gargling with 2 to 3 drops in 5 ounces of water. This gives an effective and potent dilution ratio of about 300 - 500 ppm. (For small children, mix one or two drops into any palatable heavy syrup, which will slow the product as it goes down the throat, and conceal the bitter taste, which kids don't like.)

Unlike many currently marketed products for sore throat pain, after gargling with GSE, it is completely healthful to swallow the solution.


1. The Authoritative Guide to Grapefruit Seed Extract -by Allan Sachs. (LifeRhythm, 1997)

2. The Healing Power of Grapefruit Seed -by Shalila sharamon & Bodo J. Baginski (Lotus Light - Shangri-La, 1996)

3. Tea Tree Oil & Grapefruit Seed Extract -by CJ Puotinen (Keats Good Health Guide, Keats Publishing, 1997)

4. Beyond Antibiotics.-by Michael Schmidt (North Atlantic Books, 1995)

5. Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activity of GSE on Fishery Products -by Sung-Hwan Cho, et al (Bulletin of the Korean fisheries society, Korea, 23(4) 289-296, 1990)

6. Prevention of Microbial Post-Harvest Injury of Fruits and Vegetables, by using GSE..." -by Cho, et al (Journal of the Korean Agricultural Chemical Society, Korea, 36(4), 265-270, 1993)

7. The Natural Health Guide to Children's Health -by Leonhard Davis (Natural Health, Vol.25, No. 6, East West Partners, Nov. 1995)

8. Guess What came to Dinner: Parasites and Your Health -by Ann Louise Gittlemann (Avery Publishing Group inc. 1993)

9. Grapefruit Seed Extract - Natural antibiotic -by Susan Kushner-Resnice (East-West Nat. Health Magazine, Jan. 1992)

10. Allergies and Candida -by Dr. Steven Rochlitz (Human Ecology Balancing Sciences Inc., NY 1988)

11. Grapefruit Seed Extract - A Revolution in Germ Control -by Allan Sachs (To Your Health Magazine, USA April 1993)

12. Grapefruit Seed Extract -by Dr. Mitchell skolnick (The Trend Journal, Vol. 1, No. 1, the Trends Research Inst., 1992)

13. The Helicobacter Story -by Brian & Celia Wright (Beyond Nutrition Magazine, GB 1995)

14. Grapefruit Seed Extract - A Natural Antibiotic -by B. & C. Wright (Beyond Nutrition, GB 1994)

15. Treating Common Health Problems Naturally; Consumer guide to Women's Health -by Laurel Vucovic (Natural Health, vol. 24, No. 4, East West Partners USA 1994)

16. Oral Citrus Seed Extract in Atopic Eczema: In Vitro and In Vivo Studies on Intestinal Microflora -by Ionescu/Kiel/Wichmann-Kunz/Williams et al (Journal of Orthomolecular Medicine, Vol. 5, No. 3, 1990)

17. Citrus in Health and Disease -by P. Krehl, (University Press of florida, 1989)

Grapefruit Seed Extract Production

1) Grapefruit pulp and seeds (the by-product of expeller-extracted grapefruit juice) is dried and ground into a fine powder.

2) The grapefruit powder is dissolved in purified water and distilled to remove the fiber and pectin.

3) This distilled slurry is spray dried at low temperatures forming a concentrated grapefruit bioflavonoid powder.

4) This concentrated powder is dissolved in vegetable glycerine and heated.

5) Food grade ammonium chloride and ascorbic acid are added, and this mixture is heated under pressure.

6) This material undergoes catalytic conversion using natural catalysts (including hydrochloric acid and natural enzymes.).

7) This slurry is cooled, filtered and treated with ultraviolet light.

The amount of Ammonium Chloride remaining in the final product is between 15% and 19%.

The amount of Ascorbic Acid remaining in the final product is between 25mg/g and 30mg/g.

There is no residue of hydrochloric acid in the final product.

 Mode of Activity

From Seoul, Korea, Dr. Sung-Hwan of Abcom Chemie Co., Ltd states:

"Considering all the electron micrographs, we believe that the microbial uptake of GSE alters the cell membrane by inhibiting enzymatic activities?You can see the loss of the cytoplasmic membrane."

What is not known is how GSE can affect the cell membranes of such a diverse group of microbes with virtually no toxicity toward animal life(The "Acute Oral Toxicity Study" performed by an independent laboratory concluded that you would have to take 4,000 times the normal adult dose to risk a 50% chance of poisoning). And to complicate matters further, since viruses do not have a cell membrane of their own, how is it that GSE can act as an antiviral remedy as it does?

Unraveling the mysteries of GSE and its mechanisms would undoubtedly provide extremely valuable insight into the basic activity of microbes. We might hope that research funds will become available to answer the many questions raised about how it can be so potent and yet so safe.

Activity of GSE is in the cytoplasmic membrane where the uptake of amino acids is prevented and disorganization of the cytoplasmic membrane and leakage of low molecular-weight cellular contents occurs.

Hospitals Use GSE...Environmentally Safe, Non-Toxic, and Potent

Grapefruit Seed Extract is becoming the disinfectant and sanitizing agent of choice for many hospitals and clinics throughout the United States. In the laundry, GSE ensures that the linen is fungi and bacteria free. As little as 10 - 15 drops of GSE added to the final rinse does the trick.

Jerry Skidmore, C.L.M.,  the Manager of Laundry Operations for Florida Hospitals, wrote, "I have had 30 years experience in the laundry industry and it is only since using (GSE) that I have had the peace of mind and assurance that the patients in our hospital and the other hospitals we serve have complete protection from fungal and bacteria infections that can be associated with linen. It is very gratifying to know that even after many hours of exposure to various bacteria that are always present in hospitals, that our linen has been tested and found free of all harmful or pathogenic organisms."

Hospitals have also added GSE to their carpet shampooers. It is reported that, ten to fifteen drops in the reservoir per gallon is effective in killing Staph, Strep, Aspergillus, Salmonella and many other pathogenic organisms which are present in hospital carpets.

Grapefruit Seed Extract at higher concentrations is used for sterilizing and disinfecting operating rooms and other areas. Ordinary concentrations used equate to around 300 ppm, while operating rooms and similiar applications frequently use grapefruit seed extract at concentrations as high as 1%.

One clinic in Southern California has reportedly acquired GSE to use in their inhalators for the control of respiratory infections.

Doug Gleason reports(12/19/99):

"Hi Sam,I just wanted to let you know, five people that I know have now successfully used GSE in a nebulizer to rid themselves of lung and bronchial infections. In all five cases, the symptoms disappeared in less than a day. Four of the five were children with chronic infections unaffected by anti-biotics prescribed by their doctor. This method was first tried by a respiratory therapist I know at a local hospital. She was amazed......probably more than most because that's her living.

Here's the formula: 1 drop Nutribiotic in one ounce saline water (for nebulizers). I couldn't tell you if the saline is absolutely necessary, but that's what she gave me."

It seems that even more diverse uses for grapefruit extract in hospitals will be discovered on an ongoing basis.

GSE Environmentally Safe(Soil Test Confirms)

A five-year study was completed to determine the presence or absence of Grapefruit Seed Extract(GSE) in soil, when applied using ordinary garden spraying equipment as a fungicide(or soil viricide).

Florida sand and Georgia clay were isolated in 6 x 4 foot traces in lots of 1000 square feet, 12 inches deep.

GSE was diluted in tap water at 50 PPM and 100 PPM and sprayed over a total of 1000 square feet for each dilution.

After the concentrations were applied, heavy water was applied over the sprayed soil surface, a minimum of 1 inch, and 100-gram soil samples were removed.

Using gas chromatography for analytical quantification, repeated results of 5 years' testing netted less than 1 part per billion in 1/2 inch deep soil, at both 50 and 100 PPM, when tested 1 hour after spraying.

Radioassays showed that GSE was fully degraded in 24 hours at 50 PPM, and fully degraded in 8 days at 100 PPM. 

In a study performed by Bio/Research Laboratories, Inc. of Redmond, Washington, Grapefruit Seed Extract(GSE) was proven to be 100% biodegradable. The Standard Test Method for Determining the Anaerobic Biodegradation Potential of Organic Chemicals employs an anaerobic digestion system and measures the amount of gas produced.

The more gas produced, the higher the biodegradability of the product. GSE was introduced to this system and the amount of carbon dioxide gas produced was measured. An inhibitous effect on gas production was observed during the first four weeks. However, by the eigth week gas production had reached a maximum level comparable to that of the control system, thus showing complete biodegradability after only 8 weeks.

Grapefruit Seed Extract GSE AT-30




 Product Name

 GSE AT-30

Chemical Family

 Diphenol hydroxybenzene


 Grapefruit(Citrus Grandis) Extract

Chemical formula

 60% active / 40% USP Glycerine

FDA Reg. Number

 21 CFR 182.20

CAS Number







 Heavy viscous, amber color (liquid)

80 mesh, tan color (powder)


 Strong citrus (liquid)

Mild citrus (powder)

Boiling Point

 300 degrees F. (liquid)

N/A (powder)

Melting Point



Bulk Density

 71 lbs./cubic ft., 9.5 lbs./gal.(liquid)

46.5 lbs./cubic ft. (powder)

pH(10% solution)

 2.0 ?3.0 (liquid)

2.5 ?3.5 (powder)




Solubility in Water

 Soluble (liquid), Partially (powder)


Specific Gravity

 1.110 (liquid)


Vapor Pressure



Vapor Density





 Flash Point

 350 degrees F. (liquid)

Non-flammable (powder)

Flammable Limits



Special Fire fighting Procedures



Unusual Fire & Explosion Hazards



Extinguishing Media

 Alcohol foam, water fog, carbon dioxide or dry chemical




 Acute Oral Toxicity

 LD50 over 5000 mg/kg live body weight



 At 10 mg/cubic ft., mild mucous membrane inflammation and mild irritation to nasal cavity(liquid)

Irritation to mucous membranes and upper respiratory tract from direct inhalation of dust. Recommend use of dust respirator (powder)


 Irritation to mucous membranes



 Not a primary skin irritant.



 Severe irritant to eyes when tested according to method 16 CFR 1500.42


Medical Conditions Aggrivated by Exposure





 Rinse mouth with water. Drink plenty of fluids to dilute.



 Wash skin with soap and water. Rinse skin thoroughly with water for at least 15 minutes.



 Remove from contaminated area to fresh clean air. Seek medical attention if any irritation persists.



 Flush eyes with water for at least 15 minutes. Seek medical attention if irritation persists.







Conditions to Avoid

 Extreme Heat (liquid)

Humidity (powder)

Materials to Avoid

 Avoid contact with strong oxidizing agents.


Hazardous Decomposition Products

 Phosphoric acid



 Anionic wetting agents




 Spill Protection

 Pick up excess with absorbent material, flush with water.

Waste Disposal

 Place in container and dispose of in accordance with local regulations and provisions.



 Eye Protection

 Use glasses, goggles or face shields.



 Use NIOSH-MSHA approved dust respirators


Protective Glove

 Use non-absorbent, moisture proof gloves



 Use protective apron



 Use adequate ventilation (mechanical)




 Storage & Handling

 Store upright in cool dry location.


Maintenance & Repair of Contaminated Equipment

 Clean equipment thoroughly with water.







 Shipping Name

 Non hazardous liquid/powder



 5 gallon/55 gallon plastic containers(liquid)

30 gallon fiber drums (powder)


 Conform to I.C.C. Spec. 17E or 38B


 The data supplied in the MSDS relates only to the specific material designated herein and does not relate to use in combination with any other materials or in any process. The information is supplied in good faith and based on technical data which Direct Info CO.,LTD. believes to be reliable and accurate. No warranty is either expressed or implied.




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